The knowledge of consumption of different appliances is helpful in estimating the electricity consumption for different end-uses in the households. Using the appliance-wise consumption figures, electrical energy used for different end-uses can be calculated using the formula
E. = У N■■ * A
Using the above equation, the electrical energy for the different end-uses was obtained for both LT-1 and LT-2 houses. The result shows that (refer figures 8 and 9) for LT-1 and LT-2 categories respectively) in the LT-1 houses, water heating (52.01%) consume most of the electricity and next lighting devices and entertainment appliances both consume (18.14%). Electricity consumed by the air circulation appliances (6.57%) and others (5.14%) follow them. In the LT-2 houses, it is the refrigeration appliances (24.5%) that consume the most followed by appliances used for air circulation (20.44%) and then the water heating devices (19.60%) and lighting devices (12.79%) follow
Considering both LT-1 and LT-2 consumers, the end-use estimates for residential electricity consumption in Gulbarga are obtained. The result (Fig. 10) shows that in the residential sector, water heating is the major end-use accounting for 23.38 per cent of the total consumption, followed by refrigeration with 21.65%, air circulation with 18.82% and lighting 13.42%. Entertainment, water lifting and grinding uses account for 9.54%, 7.88% and 2.33% of the total electricity consumption respectively. The remainder is accounted for by cooking, ironing and others.
Electricity consumption in the residential sector consists of heating and non-heating uses. Heating uses mainly include cooking, water heating and ironing, while non-heating uses are lighting, refrigeration, water lifting, air circulation, etc. In the total consumption of electricity, heating and non-heating uses account for 28.60 and 71.40 per cent respectively.
The household survey of electricity consumption in Gulbarga city in GESCOM region has exhibited the pattern of consumption of electricity among the LT-1 and LT-2 category houses, the appliance stock used by the households.
The end use analysis in the residential sector of Gulbarga has shown that electricity is mainly used for water heating, air circulation, entertainment, lighting and cooking. These results are essential in devising the DSM measures by the utility. The utility can come out with programs that can motivate the consumers to use energy efficient devices in most of the end uses like lighting, cooking, and entertainment. Along with this it should come out with a policy to mandate the use the renewable energy source like solar or other forms of primary energy sources for the water heating. This will help in replacing most of the existing electric water heating devices. This brings in reduction in the morning peaks of the utilities. These measures will certainly bring in the much needed relief to the utilities, which are reeling under the shortage crisis.