Since it has been showed that job satisfaction is strongly influenced by motivation, emphasis should be placed on the coach motivation. Theories of motivation are one of the most important aspects of organizational theory with particular importance for the development of interpretative models of employee performance, because they focus on work efficiency and on the factors that they maximize this efficiency. In general, work plays an important role in human life, as it characterizes and classifies someone among the economic and social classes (Kotler and Keller, 2006).
Strategies for Coping with Stress
Apart from the above, the present study indicated that coaches demonstrate high levels of job burnout, through their chronic exhibition to stress and / or the persistent imbalance between demands and coping resources. Therefore, there should be a support program, for helping coaches to cope with the stress they face. As indicated by Olusoga et al. (2010, p. 274) “the stressors described by coaches can often be experienced in combination rather than as separate demands that occur one at a time” and that stress responses “result from a perceived imbalance between environmental demands and an individual’s coping resources and, as such, the responses to a combination of stressors, and the coping efforts of coaches, are likely to be complex”. Stress has negative impact on coaching, since it is related with decreased motivation, poor relationships with other members of the team / the organisation and withdrawal. The study of Olusoga et al. (2010) examined the coping strategies of coaches for anticipating the stress they feel. The results of the study show that there are psychological responses, behavioural responses and finally physical responses. As a result, a support towards coaches to cope with the negative effects of stress and hence to prevent the job burnout is extremely important.
Suggestions for Further Research
However, this research was conducted based on the review of the available literature. Therefore it would be interesting in the future to conduct a primary research with the participation of coaches, to determine the level of their job satisfaction, and professional burnout. The results can be very useful in order to design stress management programs and improve the climate in which work is carried out by the coaches, given the significant negative symptoms of job dissatisfaction, and job burnout to coaches.
In addition, one more study that could be conducted is the effect of job satisfaction and job burnout on the performance effectiveness of the athletes and/or teams. This stems from the assumption of Cunningham and Dixon (2003) that, despite the importance of performance appraisal in the organizations, many sport organizations do not make use of such systems, formal evaluation systems and processes for assessing coaching performance, one dimension of which is the athlete performance. As a result, the performance of coaches, measured by the level of their job satisfaction and job burnout, could reveal interesting information about the performance of the athletes and the athletic departments and teams.
Within this framework, another interesting research that could be conducted is a survey in the athlete satisfaction. Athlete satisfaction has been defined as a “positive affective state resulting from a complex evaluation of the structures, processes and outcomes associated with the athletic experiences” (Laurin and Nicolas, 2009, p. 170). Given the assumption of Cunningham and Dixon (2003) that the coaching performance influences the athlete performance and the statement of Laurin and Nicolas (2009) that the athlete satisfaction is affected by a number of factors, including motivation, fulfillment of personal needs, pleasure derived from participation and the commitment of individuals, it would be if great interest to examine whether the coach performance and hence the coach job satisfaction has an impact on athlete satisfaction and thus their athletic performance. Within this context, a study that would be useful would be one examining the leadership effectiveness of coaches through the Chelladurai’s Multidimensional Model of Leadership which would investigate the satisfaction and performance of athletes. This is based on the assumption of Vallee and Bloom (2005) that athlete satisfaction and performance is influenced by leadership behaviours and more precisely from required leadership behaviors, preferred leadership behaviors, and actual leadership behaviors.