The survey of Ilhan (2012) was conducted in 87 coaches in children with mental retardation to examine the levels of job satisfaction of coaches using the Minnesota Satisfaction Inventory. The main finding of the study was that the coaches had high levels of job satisfaction, while it was found that job satisfaction was not associated with gender, age, marital status, publications, the original occupation, financial status and professional experience. Nathial (2012) examined the job satisfaction of 200 coaches working in the public and private sector. In a sample of 100 coaches from each sector, the research revealed that coaches in the private sector were more satisfied than those in public. The study also demonstrated a statistically significant difference between satisfied men in high level coaches in both public and private sector, but not between satisfied coaches at a low level.
Dixon and Warner (2010) in their research found that the desired characteristics of the work of the coach (the player-coach relationships, recognition and social status) were related to job satisfaction. Instead, the policy followed in the sports, the salary, the supervision, the balance between work and family life, as well as the way of recruitment were associated with dissatisfaction from work. Finally, the factors related to performance (relations with colleagues, flexibility and control, and configuration program), found to be associated with both satisfaction and dissatisfaction from the job.
Job satisfaction of coaches is also influenced by life satisfaction. The study of Drakou et al. (2006) in 402 coaches of 11 sports (six individual and five team sports) with the use of Scale of Life Satisfaction (SOLS) Questionnaire revealed that life satisfaction affect the job satisfaction of coaches and thus it plays a crucial role in the coaching process. It is supported that “from a managerial point of view, life satisfaction, which is positively related to job satisfaction, may influence someone’s feelings about his/her coaching career, and thus, it may influence important concepts such as productivity, absence, turnover, and so on” (Drakou et al., 2006, p. 240). Both job satisfaction and family satisfaction, which is defined as “the degree to which one is satisfied or happy with family aspects of his or her life”, contr ibute to life satisfaction” (Dixon and Sagas, 2007, p. 240). The importance of life satisfaction as an indicator of job satisfaction is also justified by the fact that coaches interact with athletes, administrators, parents and media and thus the environment in which coaches work affect their judgment and cognitive evaluation about their overall life satisfaction and hence the coaching process.
With regard to both life satisfaction as indicated by Drakou et al. (2006) and work-family conflict as mentioned by Kalliath and Kalliath (2013), an interesting study was conducted by Dixon and Sagas (2007). Examining a sample of 253 collegiate head coaches with families through a mailed questionnaire (Satisfaction with Life Scale, 8-item global Perceived Organizational Support scale and 5-item Work-Family Conflict Scale), the authors found that job satisfaction was partially mediated the effect of both organisational support and work-family conflict to life satisfaction. The results of the study provided evidence that perceived organizational support affects both directly and indirectly, namely through work-family balance, the job satisfaction of coaches. As a result, job satisfaction of coaches was influenced directly by the organisational support and indirectly by the work-family balance.
The research of Moradi et al. (2012) to 56 football coaches of players under 20 years revealed a statistically significant correlation between the emotional intelligence subscale of self-awareness, the empathy subscale and the social skills subscale with the job satisfaction. However, there was no significant correlation between the subscales of selfmotivation and self-control with job satisfaction.
Malinauskas et al. (2010) conducted research on 203 university coaches in Lithuania with the help of Coach
Burnout Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale. The results of their research showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between burnout and the years of service (over 10), but it was found that the high levels of work stress are related to job burnout. An interesting observation arises from the study of Maslach et al. (2001, as cited in Koustelios, 2010), whereby the only demographic characteristic that seems almost always to be associated with job burnout is age. For example, Pastore and Judd (1993, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) found high levels of job burnout in coaches aged 32-43 years, which decreases as the age of the coaches increased.
However, it has been found in various researches that there are also other demographic characteristics, which affect not only the appearance but also the level of job burnout of coaches. More specifically, it has been found that women coaches indicate significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and lower levels of personal achievement in comparison to men coaches (Caccese and Mayrberg, 1984, Pastore and Judd, 1993, as cited in Koustelios, 2010), while Kelley et al. (1999, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) have shown that women tend to consider coaching issues more stressful than men. Dale and Weinberg (1989, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) indicate also that male coaches report higher levels of job burnout than women. Koustelios et al. (1997, as cited in Koustelios, 2010) in their research on 103 football coaches showed that unmarried coaches exhibit higher levels of job burnout than married, but that married coaches without children show higher levels of job burnout than coaches who are married with children.
The research of Al Behery (2011) in 80 coaches of fencing in Egypt showed that the stress and the subsequent job burnout were due to reasons related to the players or the teams, the character of the coach and finally the media. Moreover, the researcher found that experienced coaches had lower stress levels, and coaches with more years of experience had lower levels of job burnout.
The study of Raedeke et al. (2002) with a sample of 469 U.S. swimming age-group coaches revealed that commitment was related to coaches satisfaction, given the fact that job satisfaction was regarded as a determinant of commitment. More precisely, the study found that coaches were committed to their profession due to various social constraints, even though the reported decreased job satisfaction.
Through transcribed interviews with 12 world class coaches, the study of Olusoga et al. (2010) examined the impact of stress, as an important factor resulting to job burnout, and the strategies that the coaches have developed to cope with the stressor factors. The importance of this study is that it revealed the effect of stress on athletes and the behaviour towards them. To be more precise, stress on behalf of the coaches can result in angry / annoyed athletes, less confidence on behalf of the athletes, and decreased athlete performance. With regard to the behaviour towards the athletes, stress can result in reduced communication, meaning that some or all of the instructions to the athletes can be lost, in anger directed towards athletes, less flexible and effective relationships with the athletes, less available time with the athletes and less time for feedback.
However, not all studies lead to the same result. More specifically, Koustelios (2010) examined the level of job burnout of 132 football coaches in Greece using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The survey results showed that football coaches in Greece have low levels of job burnout in relation to emotional exhaustion but high personal achievement. The survey did not found any statistically significant association between job burnout and the age of coaches.
The following table summarises the researches that have been conducted with regard to the job satisfaction and job burnout of coaches, the instrument used in the research, the sample of the research and the outcome.
Table 1: Researches Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Job Burnout of Coaches