Posted by Connie R. Aponte on February 10, 2014 in Job Satisfaction |

Job satisfaction is defined as the positive and negative attitudes that the individual has for his/her work (Koustelios and Kousteliou, 2001, p. 31). Locke (1976, as cited in Zournatzi et al., 2006, p. 19) has identified job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s work or work experience. The fact is that there is not a single and unique definition for job satisfaction, since it is a multidimensional concept, as indicated by Zournatzi et al. (2006).

Job satisfaction is related to the productivity and efficiency of worker absenteeism and staff mobility, and depends on factors such as the content of the work, and the context in which work is carried out (Koustelios and Kousteliou, 2001). Additional factors associated with job satisfaction are the reduction of errors in the workplace, and the intention of employees to leave their jobs (Zournatzi et al., 2006).

One important factor that contributes positively to job satisfaction is the salary. More precisely, according to the economic theory that utility from work, measured as job satisfaction, depends positively on income and negatively on hours of work, and that it depends also on a set of other job-specific and worker-specific characteristics” (Vila and Garcia-Mora, 2005, p. 411). However, Georgiadi (2008) noted in her research on 146 coaches wrestling and taekwondo that coaches were not only satisfied with the agent salary. This indicates that there are factors that are also important in job satisfaction. For example, it has been found that more educated people show higher levels of job satisfaction in comparison to low educated people, given the fact that better educated people form more accurate expectations and pursue their aspirations more efficiently that poorly educated people (Vila and Garcia-Mora, 2005).

Moradi et al. (2012) report that self-awareness, empathy, emotional intelligence and social skills are important parameters that are positively associated with job satisfaction. The expectations that a coach has from his/her profession, and the behavior of the director-president of a sport group / club also affect the level of labor of satisfaction, whereas job satisfaction is negatively related to turnover and positively with increased performance of employees (Dixon and Warner, 2010). Another important factor that influences the job satisfaction of the individuals is the balance between the family and the work life. In fact there is empirical evidence that this work-family conflict can lead towards reduced job satisfaction and increased psychological strain (Dixon and Sagas, 2007; Kalliath and Kalliath, 2013). Team working is also seems to be related to job satisfaction. For instance, Williams (1998) argues that working in teams offers employees increased levels of job satisfaction, through increased decision-making powers, as well as meaningful and varied multi-skilled job. Apart from this, it is supported that team working increases employee productivity and employee commitment.

Two key features of the workplace that affect negatively the job satisfaction of individuals are both role ambiguity and role conflict on the other hand. The role ambiguity is associated with the uncertainty experienced when the employee does not know the requirements of his/her work, how to achieve them and how he/she expects others to behave in the same work. The role conflict exists when different people or different groups of persons with whom the employee interacts (e.g., family, colleagues, friends, parents) have conflicting expectations for behavior (Amarantidou and Koustelios, 2009). The study of Ayub and Rafif (2011) concluded that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and motivation. Various factors, both tangible and intangible, affect the satisfaction that individuals derive from their work. For example, Schultz and Schultz (1998, as cited in Ayub and Rafif, 2011) advocate that job satisfaction include the positive and negative feelings of employees about their jobs, where motivation plays a crucial role.

Finally, it should be mentioned that, according to the international literature, the factors that contribute to the job satisfaction, is their involvement and participation in the decision – making process of the organization (Shuck et al., 2011;

Greasley et al., 2005; Joensson, 2008), the ability to perform one’s tasks effectively and in accordance to ones perceptions of self – efficacy (Greasley et al., 2005), the workplace climate (Shuck et al., 2011), the economic incentives (Stringer et al., 2011), achievement, interpersonal relationships, and general working conditions (Halepota and Shah, 2011).

Positive job satisfaction is related to higher job performance and increased productivity (Saari and Judge, 2004). In addition, higher levels of job satisfaction are associated with the overall life satisfaction (Saari and Judge, 2004; Drakou et al., 2006). On the other hand, job dissatisfaction is related to absenteeism, decreased productivity and performance, lateness and decision to retire (Saari and Judge, 2004).

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