Posted by Connie R. Aponte on November 17, 2013 in Capitalist Economies |


Since the advent of apple economy, the Pashtuns have gone through a social and economic change. Due to their interactions with the people in different markets they have become aware of their surroundings and technology, which they are utilizing to achieve their horticultural goals. They have become more settled and economically better-off today. There is a complete shift from lower to middle class because of this apple economy. Haji Payo Khan started growing apple in early 20th century. Later the natives accepted the idea and followed him. Today majority of the villagers enjoy basic facilities. Now many of them have their own cars, property and running businesses in Quetta.


In the above discussion some major structural change could be observed. In the beginning of 20th century people of the village were nomads and the apple economy changed their nomadic lifestyle to the permanent settlements. Subsistence economy has changed into market economy. In subsistence economy, people were growing crops for their domestic use and keeping cattle for meeting household needs, meaning thereby that they don’t have to spend money to get anything from the market. On the other hand when it opened up into the market economy, the farmer started growing crops to sell in the market and earn money. Now he has to buy almost everything for his personal use from the market. The money which he earns always falls short of his needs because of change in his consumption patron. For example, in the past he drank lasi to finish his thirst and served the same to his guests, but today he buys coca cola or any other soft drink for the purpose. Same is the case with other products which are available in the market and properly backed up with advertising.

Since the middle of 20th century, the village economy was only based on horticulture with apple as the main source of income, but now they are involved indifferent businesses and employment in public and private sector to earn additional income. In order to further supplement domestic income, the women have started working. Some of them have started producing home based handicrafts.

Joint families are breaking into nuclear families, which has changed the bigger land holding patterns to the small pieces of land. Special efforts were made by the Government as well as by the individual to expand the area under fruit orchards. A major shift from horticulture to the other occupations was also observed in the village. The sole dependence on apple economy has fallen from 74% to 22%. Now they are economically better-off as middle class also has emerged. They have their own cars, property and businesses.

In the field of horticulture use of technology, modern techniques, transportation, pesticides and chemical fertilizers is clearly visible and it has grown during the last three decades. Before 1980s farmers were dependent upon animals for farming and the animal waste for urea. The low profit farm products are no more cultivated. Majority of the natives has replaced cheap quality apple trees with that of expensive ones. They have switching over to the types having great export value, local market demand and high profit. The market is also in transition from local market to the export. Before 1980s total production was consumed at local markets but now more than 40% of the apple is sold to the exporters. Improved irrigation system has also been introduced in the village in public-private partnership and some further refinements have been brought with the help of NGOs. The traditional karez system has been replaced by tube-wells which has weakened their social integration. Certain important points have been further analyzed by linking to conceptual and theoretical discussions, which are as under.

1. Shift from subsistence economy to market economy supports the industry as the raw materials, which includes livestock and farm production are sold in the market to earn money and for personal consumption they are bought from the market produced or processed by the industry. So the ultimate beneficiary of this change remains the industrialist of core countries for being producer of all these products.

2. Moving from horticulture economy to businesses and employments in public and private sector to earn additional income also benefits the industry as it finds cheap labour. Supplementary domestic income by the women folk through handicrafts helps to maintain low wage rates.

3. When joint families break into nuclear families it normally results into urban migration where the majority of the adults work for the industry and their dependence upon the consumer products also increases.

4. Technology, modern techniques, transportation, pesticides and chemical fertilizers used in the village are imported from the core countries sometimes in shape of finished products and sometimes in shape of instillations, industrial supplies and fabricated parts.

5. Use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers gives rise to health problems due to which medical bill increases and the pharmaceutical industry of the core countries gets benefit. The transfer of wealth by exploiting periphery and semi-periphery by core countries which encourages rapid scientific development so that Western medicine and other scientific institutions could surpass underdeveloped countries of the world.

6. Increase in the export of farm products supports Wallerstein argument where he says that world is becoming a single economic unit through exchange and trade with a vast diversity in division of labour among the countries.

7. Intervention of core countries through NGOs and Government sector by providing financial development aid is also visible in the village.

In the end the researcher is in full agreement with the views of world system theorists who have been working in the field of capitalist world economy.The argument developed by Wallerstein (1974, 1980, 1989), Samir Amin (1970, 1973), Cardoso and Falleto (1969), Santos (1970a, 1970b), Rodney (1974), and Andre Gunder Frank (1969) seems valid. So in the light of empirical data world system theory is found valid and accepted.


Man has always been striving for the richness of human life. Traces of this advancement could be found right from human prehistory which begins in the Paleolithic Era. Agricultural Revolution started between 8000 and 5000 BC and began to spread all over the world. When productivity increased need for store and transportation of food was felt. This resulted in development of cities and division of labor. This process continued and the man started using machines for mass production in 18 th century what we call Industrial Revolution.

This Industrial Revolution brought some significant change in man’s life. The concept of development changed from enhancement of the richness of human life to the richness of the economy in which a man lives. This change has also affected the natives’ life and village economic. The village has gone through some major structural changes during recent past. The natives are economically well off which they consider as development. This development has increased their choices. Use of technology, pesticides and chemical fertilizers has become common ignoring all environmental issues and health hazards. The natives are happy as far as cash flow increases which resulted in the growth of per-capita income and increase in the volume of consumer goods and thus improved the material quality of life of the people. On the other hand it has also resulted into the disintegration of social bonds in the village. This situation supports the world’s capitalist economies in different ways. Technology, pesticides, chemical fertilizers pharmaceutical and consumer products are imported from core countries which in turn promotes growth for capitalist industry on one side and increases lust for money among the natives on the other who start selling their services and raw materials to the industry to fulfill their economic needs. So interdependence exists, for periphery it is for finished products and for core it is for raw materials and human resource. This interdependence supports the core countries as the consumer products used in peripheral countries become a source of profit and inexpensive raw material and cheap labour provide them savings. So they are becoming richer and richer at the cost of the peripheral economies.

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