Karnataka is one of the few states in India, which had the power reforms initiated, in 70s only, in the form of separation of generation and T&D operations. The Karnataka Electricity Board (KEB) for the transmission and distribution affairs and Karnataka Power Corporation (KPC), The major share of the generation of the state comes from the hydel power (around 3700 MW), which is mainly monsoon dependent. The major thermal power station, Raichur Thermal Power Station (RTPS), has an installed capacity of 1470 MW, is around 20 years old and has started facing problems. It has an average plant load factor of 81.68 in the year 2008-09, a reduction from 84.22 in 2007-08. The central share is around 1600 MW and IPP contribution is 3050 MW. The objective of any DSM activity is to produce a loadshape change. Therefore, the successful implementation and the success of the program depend on the balancing of the needs of both the utility and customer.
The implementation of DSM program involves various steps, they are as following:
Step 1: Carrying Load Research: This step involves the evaluation of the customer base, load profile on an hourly basis and will identify the sectors contributing to the load shape. It will also identify the tariff classes in the utility, current recovery from different sectors and current subsidy offered to different sectors.
Step 2: Defining load-shape objectives: Here, DSM engineers will define the load shape objectives for the current situation, based on the results of the load research in the utility. Various load-shape objectives are mainly Peak Clipping (reduction in the peak demand), Valley Filling (increased demand at off-peak), Load Shifting (demand shifting to non-peak period), and Load Building (increased demand) are possible. The different load shape objectives are shown in Fig. 1.
Step 3: Assessing program implementation strategies: This step identifies the end-use applications that can be potentially targeted to reduce peak demand, specifically in sectors with higher subsidies. This step also carries out a detailed benefit-cost analysis for the end-users and the utilities, including analysis on societal as well as environmental benefits.
Step 4: Implementation: Implementation stage involves designing the program for specific end-use applications; also promote the program to the target audience through marketing approaches such as advertising, bills and inserts.
Step 5: Monitoring and Evaluation: This step entails tracking the program design and implementation. It also compares the same with proposed DSM goal set by the utility. A detailed benefit-cost analysis in this case will include identifying the avoided supply cost for the utility in relation to the total program cost for the utilities and benefits to the participants including the reduced bills or incentives to the end-users.
This paper takes up the initial step, paving way for the DSM program designs in GESCOM region.