The literature review conducted showed that job dissatisfaction, and increased levels of stress can lead to burnout.
Job satisfaction of coaches appears to be associated with both the personal characteristics of coaches and other factors associated with the nature of their work and the context in which they conducted their work. Additionally, the above review has shown that coaches are characterized by high levels of job burnout, differentiated by sex, age, and work experience.Given the fact that this research indicated the factors associated with job satisfaction and the job burnout of coaches, the results could be useful in designing a model which has an impact on these variables and hence their coaching performance, including the fostering of the athletes’ individual growth and performance and the athletes’ satisfaction. The factors are illustrated in the following tables.
Support and Cooperation
Overall the results of this study indicate the need for a support program for coaches, covering various issues, from psychological support till seminars and education for acquiring leadership and communication skills. The need for support
is also justified by the outcomes of the study of Olusoga et al. (2010), who found that coaches use support (work-related support, advice from others and social support) in order to cope with the stressor factors of their profession. Apart from this, the outcomes of the study of Olusoga et al. (2010) provide a justification for the need of education in the following themes: a) continued professional development, such as self-improvement, b) experience as an athlete, based more on the role of coach as a leader, and c) experience as a coach.
The outcomes of this research suggest that there is a need for close cooperation between coaches and psychology practitioners, so as coaches to be able to cope with the demands of their occupation, through the development of the appropriate skills and strategies. What is more, given the fact that organisation commitment and work-family conflict influence the job satisfaction of coaches as indicated by various researchers (Dixon and Sagas, 2007; Rocha and Chelladurai, 2011; Kalliath and Kalliath, 2013), as well as taking into account the fact that organisational support has an impact on the commitment of coaches and hence their coaching performance (Rocha and Chelladurai, 2011), it can be argued that there is a need for a relevant model for coaches. This model on the one hand would support the coaches regarding their effort to achieve the balance between their working and family life and on the other hand it would support management practices and methods for the provision of organisational support to coaches. This model would contribute to the increase of the organisational commitment of coaches, the enhancing of their life satisfaction and finally their overall job satisfaction and hence coaching performance.
In addition, Williams (1998) supported that job satisfaction is related to team working, where leadership plays a crucial role. Since leadership can be defined as “the effective exercise of influence” (Caine, 1976, as cited in Canton, 2003, p. 27) and assuming that employees feel better with a manager who bases his/her actions on specific principles and standards (Canton, 2003, p. 27), it is very important for coaches to exhibit strong leadership skills, so as to further enhance the team working and to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of the team. One more reason for which leadership skills on behalf of the coaches is important is the argument of Vallee and Bloom (2005) that leadership effectiveness can be measured through the athletes’ both satisfaction and performance via the Chelladurai’s Multidimensional Model of Leadership. For this reason, seminars and training are important factors in coaches’ education for the acquisition of leadership skills for the effective management of teams.
Communication, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Skills
Apart from the leadership skills, communication, conflict resolution and negotiation skills are also of great importance for the coaches to enhance the performance of an athlete or a team. This assumptions is not only justified by Gould et al. (2007), but is also derives from the importance of communication and the benefits of negotiation and conflict resolution skills. Organizational communication is an active process included in the administrative process, which is crucial for the managers of the organisations, within the framework of the efficient implementation of the administrative and organizational functions of the company (Altinoz, 2009). However, the most important advantage of communication, according to which the coaches should have communicative skills, is that communication contributes to resolving disputes and reducing the escalation of conflicts (Adejimola, 2009).
The conflicts in an organization / a team may arise due to lack of trust, the existence of a gap in the communication process, the conflicts of interest, the severe competition or any other factors stemming from the individual’s personality characteristics (Gupta and Sasidhar, 2010), as well as the different cultural characteristics of the persons in this team (Hudson et al., 2005; Lukman et al., 2009; Li, 2012). As a result, the coach should be able to understand the sources of potential conflict and solve these conflicts raised within a team, given the negative impact of conflicts.