Job Satisfaction is determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. It represents several related attitudes and is an emotional response to a job situation. Various factors contribute to satisfaction pertaining to a job ranging from personal to work and organizational factors. Much of its nature, consequences and factors have been propagated in theories and several research studies. The paper gives a comprehensive review of studies made in the area and throws light on future areas for further research.
DEFINING JOB SATISFACTION
Hoppock (1935, p. 47) defined job satisfaction as “any combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, ‘I am satisfied with my job’. Many scholars have measured the level of job satisfaction. . Locke (1969, 1976) defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences”. Graham (1982, p. 68) defined Job satisfaction as “the measurement of one’s total feelings and attitudes towards one’s job”. Job satisfaction is the constellation of attitudes about job. Spector (1985) found that if the employees find their job fulfilling and rewarding, they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs. Nash (1985) has extensively reviewed the nature of job satisfaction in the industrial world and found that job satisfaction is attributed not only to one but many factors and varies in its impact on individuals satisfaction with life because work varies in importance from individual to individual. He also found that people who take their job as prime interest experience high level of job satisfaction. Their job satisfaction will be further enhanced if they are doing work that is utilizing their skills. He also found that job satisfaction is an indicator of employee’s motivation to come to work and it changes with age and employment cycle. It is the degree to which employees enjoy their jobs (McCloskey and McCain 1987). Rue and Byars (1992) refer to job satisfaction as an individual’s mental state about the job. Job satisfactions consist of overall or general job satisfaction, as well as a variety of satisfaction facets (Cranny et al., 1992; Friday &Friday, 2003). Schermerhorn (1993) defines job satisfaction as an affective or emotional response towards various aspects of an employee’s work According to Cherrington (1994), research on job satisfaction has identified two aspects to understanding the concept of job satisfaction, namely the facet satisfaction and overall satisfaction. These two concepts are explained as follows: Facet Satisfaction : Facet satisfaction refer to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets or aspects of the job (John, 1988) Cherrington (1994)it refers to the various aspects or facets of the job as the individual’s attitude about their pay, the work itself- whether it is challenging, stimulating and attractive, and the 22 supervisors- weather they possess the softer managerial skills as well as being competent in their jobs. Overall Satisfaction: Overall satisfaction focuses on the general internal sate of satisfaction or dissatisfaction within the individual. Positive experiences in terms of friendly colleagues, good remuneration, compassionate supervisors and attractive jobs create a positive internal sate. Negative experiences emanating from low pay, less than stimulating jobs and criticism create a negative internal state. Therefore, the feeling of overall satisfaction or satisfaction is a holistic feeling that is dependent on the intensity and frequency of positive and negative experiences (Cherrington, 1994). Similarly, Mc Namara (n.d.) points out that job satisfaction refers to an individual’s feelings or state of mind giving heed to the nature of the individual’s work. The author further explains that job satisfaction can be influenced by a diversity of job dimensions, inter alia, the quality of the employees relationship with their supervisor, the status of the physical environment in which the individual works, degree of fulfillment in work. In direct contrast, This definition is expanded by Greenberg and Baron (1995) who define job satisfaction as an individual’s cognitive, affective and evaluative reactions toward their jobs. Spector (1997) refers to job satisfaction in terms of how people feel about there job and different aspects of their jobs. It is an affective reaction to a job that results from the comparison of perceived outcomes with those that are desired (Kam,1998). Job satisfaction is simply defined as the affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Price, 2001). Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) support this view by defining job satisfaction as the extent to which employees like their work.Schneider and Snyder (1975 cited in Sempane et al., 2002) conclude job satisfaction is an individual’s personal assessment of conditions prevalent in the job, thus evaluation occurs on the basis of factors, which they regard as important to them. Various literature sources indicate that there is an association between job satisfaction and motivation, motivation is hard to define, but there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction, performance and motivation, whereby motivation encourages an employee, depending on their level of job satisfaction, to act in acertain manner (Hollyforde, 2002). According to Kreitner et al (2002) job satisfaction is an affective and emotional response to various facets of one’s job. Kreitner et al (2002) identified various factors influencing job satisfaction, such as the need for management to create an environment that encourages employee involvement and manages stress in the workplace. According to Woods et al (2004), job satisfaction can be achieved when an employee becomes one with the organization, performs to the best of their ability and shows commitment; moreover, job satisfaction and performance are positively influenced by rewards. This definition suggests that employees from their attitude towards their jobs by taking into account their feelings, belief and behaviours (Robbins, 2005; Akehurst, Comeche, & Galindo, 2009). In other words, Shortly , job satisfaction describes the feelings, attitudes or preferences of individuals regarding work (Chen, 2008). According to Galup, Klein, and Jiang (2008), successful organizations normally have satisfied employees while poor job satisfaction can cripple an organization. Employees’ satisfaction is generally regarded as an important ingredient for organizational success.
Job satisfaction is how employees feel about different aspect of their job. Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon that has been studied quite extensively. Job satisfaction results from the perception that one’s job fulfils or allows the fulfillment of one’s own important job values, providing that and to the degree that those values are congruent with one’s needs.